In May 2022 over 70,000 developers told us how they learn and level up, which tools they’re using, and what they want.

Read the overview → Methodology →

Overview

The questions we ask in our annual survey help us improve the Stack Overflow community and the platform that serves them.

The challenge and opportunity for us is to continue expanding and improving our ability to help all developers and to make them feel welcome in our community.

Read on for more great insights about the attitudes, tools, and environments that are shaping the art and practice of software today.

Developer Profile
Learning to code

Learning to code online increased from 60% to 70% year over year.

Respondents older than 45 years are most likely to have learned from books, while younger ones are learning online. Younger (under 18) respondents rely most on online resources and are most likely to have learned from online courses or certifications.

Learning how to code
Technology
Most popular technologies

Last year we saw Git as a fundamental tool to being a developer. This year it appears that Docker is becoming a similar fundamental tool for Professional Developers, increasing from 55% to 69%.

People learning to code are more likely to be using 3D tools than Professional Developers - Unity 3D (23% vs 8%) and Unreal Engine (9% vs 3%) - teaching themselves skills for 3D VR and AR.

Other tools
Technology
Most loved, dreaded, and wanted

Rust is on its seventh year as the most loved language with 87% of developers saying they want to continue using it.

Rust also ties with Python as the most wanted technology with TypeScript running a close second.

Programming, scripting, and markup languages
Technology
Most loved, dreaded, and wanted

Phoenix overtakes Svelte’s spot as the most loved web framework.

Angular.js is in its third year as the most dreaded. React.js completes its fifth year as most wanted.

Web frameworks and technologies
Technology
Most loved, dreaded, and wanted

Docker and Kubernetes are in first and second place as the most loved and wanted tools.

The desire to start using Docker does not appear to be slowing down as Docker increased from 30% last to 37% this year for wanted.

Other tools
Technology
Top paying technologies

Clojure remains the highest-paid language to know. Chef developers are the highest paid but Chef is also the most dreaded other tool.

Big-data and data streaming skills are well compensated with Apache Spark, Apache Kafka, and Hadoop all in the top three other frameworks and libraries.

Additionally, developers that have colocation experience are paid more than their cloud-only counterparts.

Top paying technologies
Work
Employment

Full-time employment went up by 4 percentage points for all respondents. Professional Developers that are “Independent contractor, freelancer, or self-employed” have grown significantly in the last year (up by 5 percentage points).

In 2022 this question was changed to multi-select.

Employment status
Work
Employment

85% of developers say their organizations are at least partially remote.

Smaller organizations are most likely to be in-person, with 20% of 2-19 employee organizations in-person.

The largest organizations, with 10k+ employees, are most likely to be hybrid.

Work environment
Professional Developers
Productivity impacts

62% of all respondents spend more than 30 minutes a day searching for answers or solutions to problems.

25% spending more than an hour each day. Regardless of being an independent contributor or people manager, this is time that could be spent learning or building.

For a team of 50 developers, the amount of time spent searching for answers/solutions adds up to between 333-651 hours of time lost per week across the entire team.

Daily time spent searching for answers/solutions

Developer Profile

What we know about the global community of developers

Developer Profile

Education

Most developers (87%) have a post-secondary education, having some college or more.

38% of those learning to code already have a degree, learning doesn’t have to stop after you graduate.

70% of all respondents and 80% of Professional Developers have completed some form of higher education, a bachelor’s degree being the most common.

73,268 responses
Primary/elementary school 2.46% 1,806
Secondary school (e.g. American high school, German Realschule or Gymnasium, etc.) 10.79% 7,904
Some college/university study without earning a degree 12.73% 9,326
Associate degree (A.A., A.S., etc.) 3.05% 2,236
Bachelor’s degree (B.A., B.S., B.Eng., etc.) 41.32% 30,276
Master’s degree (M.A., M.S., M.Eng., MBA, etc.) 21.14% 15,486
Professional degree (JD, MD, etc.) 1.53% 1,121
Other doctoral degree (Ph.D., Ed.D., etc.) 2.96% 2,169
Something else 1.7% 1,247
Which of the following best describes the highest level of formal education that you’ve completed? *
53,507 responses
Primary/elementary school 0.77% 413
Secondary school (e.g. American high school, German Realschule or Gymnasium, etc.) 6.28% 3,360
Some college/university study without earning a degree 12.41% 6,638
Associate degree (A.A., A.S., etc.) 3.21% 1,715
Bachelor’s degree (B.A., B.S., B.Eng., etc.) 47.9% 25,630
Master’s degree (M.A., M.S., M.Eng., MBA, etc.) 23.95% 12,817
Professional degree (JD, MD, etc.) 1.62% 868
Other doctoral degree (Ph.D., Ed.D., etc.) 2.47% 1,320
Something else 1.23% 658
Which of the following best describes the highest level of formal education that you’ve completed? *
6,309 responses
Primary/elementary school 7.01% 442
Secondary school (e.g. American high school, German Realschule or Gymnasium, etc.) 31.78% 2,005
Some college/university study without earning a degree 19.42% 1,225
Associate degree (A.A., A.S., etc.) 3.69% 233
Bachelor’s degree (B.A., B.S., B.Eng., etc.) 27.26% 1,720
Master’s degree (M.A., M.S., M.Eng., MBA, etc.) 5.75% 363
Professional degree (JD, MD, etc.) 1.09% 69
Other doctoral degree (Ph.D., Ed.D., etc.) 0.49% 31
Something else 2.96% 187
Which of the following best describes the highest level of formal education that you’ve completed? *

Developer Profile

Learning to code

We see that learning how to code is a very unique experience, with people using a variety of tools and resources to build their skills.

Learning to code online increased from 60% to 70% year over year.

Respondents older than 45 years are most likely to have learned from books, while younger ones are learning online. Younger (under 18) respondents rely most on online resources and are most likely to have learned from online courses or certifications.

71,580 responses
Other online resources (e.g., videos, blogs, forum) 70.91% 50,756
School (i.e., University, College, etc) 62.18% 44,506
Books / Physical media 54.48% 38,994
Online Courses or Certification 46.63% 33,379
On the job training 39.85% 28,523
Colleague 18.42% 13,188
Friend or family member 13.95% 9,987
Coding Bootcamp 10.8% 7,731
Hackathons (virtual or in-person) 7.36% 5,269
How did you learn to code? Select all that apply.
69,809 responses
Under 18 years old
Other online resources (e.g., videos, blogs, forum) 84.95% 3,211
School (i.e., University, College, etc) 30.74% 1,162
Books / Physical media 37.06% 1,401
Online Courses or Certification 43.04% 1,627
On the job training 4.39% 166
Colleague 2.91% 110
Friend or family member 20.98% 793
Coding Bootcamp 10.53% 398
Hackathons (virtual or in-person) 6.64% 251
18-24 years old
Other online resources (e.g., videos, blogs, forum) 78.62% 12,983
School (i.e., University, College, etc) 65.47% 10,811
Books / Physical media 39.71% 6,557
Online Courses or Certification 50.87% 8,400
On the job training 28.44% 4,697
Colleague 14.13% 2,334
Friend or family member 15.23% 2,515
Coding Bootcamp 12.64% 2,087
Hackathons (virtual or in-person) 9.96% 1,644
25-34 years old
Other online resources (e.g., videos, blogs, forum) 71.39% 19,935
School (i.e., University, College, etc) 66.2% 18,486
Books / Physical media 50.9% 14,215
Online Courses or Certification 49.55% 13,837
On the job training 45.72% 12,767
Colleague 21.24% 5,932
Friend or family member 12.78% 3,568
Coding Bootcamp 11.8% 3,296
Hackathons (virtual or in-person) 8.24% 2,301
35-44 years old
Other online resources (e.g., videos, blogs, forum) 66.93% 9,298
School (i.e., University, College, etc) 62.88% 8,735
Books / Physical media 69.98% 9,722
Online Courses or Certification 43.69% 6,070
On the job training 47.21% 6,558
Colleague 22.21% 3,086
Friend or family member 14.99% 2,083
Coding Bootcamp 8.79% 1,221
Hackathons (virtual or in-person) 5.13% 713
45-54 years old
Other online resources (e.g., videos, blogs, forum) 61.1% 3,188
School (i.e., University, College, etc) 60.46% 3,155
Books / Physical media 84.29% 4,398
Online Courses or Certification 40.25% 2,100
On the job training 50.54% 2,637
Colleague 20.76% 1,083
Friend or family member 12.61% 658
Coding Bootcamp 7.9% 412
Hackathons (virtual or in-person) 3.55% 185
55-64 years old
Other online resources (e.g., videos, blogs, forum) 52.73% 1,024
School (i.e., University, College, etc) 63.65% 1,236
Books / Physical media 83.63% 1,624
Online Courses or Certification 34.19% 664
On the job training 53.45% 1,038
Colleague 18.9% 367
Friend or family member 7.16% 139
Coding Bootcamp 6.95% 135
Hackathons (virtual or in-person) 2.37% 46
65 years or older
Other online resources (e.g., videos, blogs, forum) 48.23% 259
School (i.e., University, College, etc) 58.85% 316
Books / Physical media 80.26% 431
Online Courses or Certification 28.31% 152
On the job training 53.26% 286
Colleague 17.69% 95
Friend or family member 4.66% 25
Coding Bootcamp 6.15% 33
Hackathons (virtual or in-person) 2.61% 14
How did you learn to code? Select all that apply.

The most relied upon online resources for people to learn how to code are technical documentation and Stack Overflow. This shows how important it is for companies to have well-written documentation available and an active community providing answers on Stack Overflow.

It’s also interesting that we see such variety in the way that people teach themselves how to code. Written material, a variety of video formats, books, courses - there’s no one size fits all approach to learning how to code. Everyone can piece together the resources and formats that work best for their learning style.

50,685 responses
Technical documentation 88.13% 44,669
Stack Overflow 86.14% 43,658
Blogs 75.35% 38,192
How-to videos 59.92% 30,371
Written Tutorials 58.08% 29,436
Video-based Online Courses 51.42% 26,064
Online books 43.87% 22,238
Online forum 40.34% 20,446
Written-based Online Courses 34.38% 17,424
Coding sessions (live or recorded) 28.86% 14,626
Interactive tutorial 26.21% 13,287
Online challenges (e.g., daily or weekly coding challenges) 25.1% 12,723
Certification videos 14.88% 7,541
Programming Games 13.32% 6,752
Auditory material (e.g., podcasts) 7.21% 3,652
What online resources do you use to learn to code? Select all that apply.

Udemy leads as the most popular online course or certification program for learning how to code. This may be popular for the same reasons we saw above - people can purchase the individual courses they want, creating their own learning path.

29,389 responses
Udemy 66.49% 19,540
Coursera 34.91% 10,261
Codecademy 26.24% 7,712
Pluralsight 22.44% 6,594
Other 22.21% 6,528
edX 15.62% 4,590
Udacity 13.59% 3,995
Skillsoft 1.88% 553
What online courses or certifications do you use to learn to code? Select all that apply.

Developer Profile

Experience

The majority of developers in their early to mid-career stage.

Similar to last year 50% of respondents have been coding for ten years or less.

The United States and United Kingdom respondents are the most experienced respondents, with an average of 15 and a half years of experience coding.

71,331 responses
Less than 1 year 1.98% 1,413
1 to 4 years 18.95% 13,519
5 to 9 years 29.28% 20,889
10 to 14 years 18.88% 13,466
15 to 19 years 10.04% 7,161
20 to 24 years 8.01% 5,714
25 to 29 years 4.47% 3,189
30 to 34 years 3.28% 2,341
35 to 39 years 2.39% 1,702
40 to 44 years 1.9% 1,355
45 to 49 years 0.48% 342
More than 50 years 0.34% 240
Including any education, how many years have you been coding in total?
41,279 responses
United States of America 15.58 13,227
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 15.55 4,117
Canada 14.32 2,433
Netherlands 14.06 1,537
Germany 13.57 5,339
Spain 13.11 1,502
France 12.3 2,291
Brazil 11.55 2,046
Poland 11.01 1,703
India 7.29 6,254
Including any education, how many years have you been coding in total?

A majority of respondents (75%) have been working for 14 or fewer years as a professional developer, meaning they’ve never worked in a world without Stack Overflow.

51,833 responses
Less than 1 year 3.8% 1,972
1 to 4 years 28.43% 14,734
5 to 9 years 27.45% 14,230
10 to 14 years 16.16% 8,375
15 to 19 years 8.94% 4,633
20 to 24 years 7.24% 3,751
25 to 29 years 3.59% 1,863
30 to 34 years 2.21% 1,147
35 to 39 years 1.2% 624
40 to 44 years 0.66% 341
45 to 49 years 0.21% 108
More than 50 years 0.11% 55
NOT including education, how many years have you coded professionally (as a part of your work)?

Years of professional coding experience by developer type

51,833 responses
Senior Executive (C-Suite, VP, etc.) 17.04 1,645
Engineering manager 14.5 3,372
Product manager 14.42 2,221
Developer, desktop or enterprise applications 13.75 8,276
Designer 13.71 2,889
Project manager 13.66 3,401
Database administrator 13.62 4,255
Security professional 13.53 1,594
Marketing or sales professional 13.34 337
Educator 13.12 1,596
System administrator 13.02 4,059
Developer, embedded applications or devices 12.86 3,275
Data or business analyst 12.77 2,637
Scientist 12.05 1,298
Engineer, site reliability 11.94 1,703
Developer, game or graphics 11.9 1,334
DevOps specialist 11.65 5,548
Cloud infrastructure engineer 11.58 4,777
Developer, QA or test 11.19 2,620
Engineer, data 11.17 3,055
Academic researcher 10.89 1,723
Developer, back-end 10.69 22,810
Developer, mobile 10.51 6,295
Developer, full-stack 10.23 24,247
Developer, front-end 9.95 12,960
Data scientist or machine learning specialist 9.7 2,629
Blockchain 9.63 971
Student 4.86 677
NOT including education, how many years have you coded professionally (as a part of your work)?

Developer Profile

Developer roles

Few developers consider themselves to be a single developer type, showing us their skill diversity.

Full-stack, back-end, front-end, and desktop developers continue to account for the majority of all respondents. We asked about Cloud infrastructure engineer for the first time this year - almost 9% classify themselves as this type of developer.

Developers are wearing multiple hats. The majority of respondents said they considered themselves to be more than one type of developer - with DBAs, SREs, and Security professionals reporting the most variety. On average each of these roles reported being seven other developer types.

61,302 responses
Developer, full-stack 46.82% 28,701
Developer, back-end 43.38% 26,595
Developer, front-end 25.96% 15,915
Developer, desktop or enterprise applications 15.57% 9,546
Developer, mobile 12.45% 7,634
DevOps specialist 10.06% 6,170
Student 9.13% 5,595
Cloud infrastructure engineer 8.62% 5,283
Database administrator 8.05% 4,934
System administrator 8.01% 4,908
Developer, embedded applications or devices 6.4% 3,923
Project manager 6.36% 3,897
Designer 6.14% 3,764
Engineer, data 5.87% 3,600
Engineering manager 5.83% 3,574
Data scientist or machine learning specialist 5.59% 3,424
Data or business analyst 5.22% 3,201
Developer, QA or test 5.05% 3,096
Academic researcher 4.42% 2,709
Product manager 4.1% 2,514
Educator 3.41% 2,090
Engineer, site reliability 3.18% 1,947
Security professional 3.15% 1,928
Developer, game or graphics 3% 1,837
Senior Executive (C-Suite, VP, etc.) 2.94% 1,805
Scientist 2.87% 1,762
Blockchain 2.12% 1,302
Marketing or sales professional 0.84% 518
Which of the following describes your current job? Please select all that apply.
59,988 responses

Average count of other roles

Database administrator 7 4,934
Product manager 7 2,514
Security professional 7 1,928
Blockchain 6 1,302
Data or business analyst 6 3,201
Designer 6 3,764
Developer, game or graphics 6 1,837
Developer, QA or test 6 3,096
Educator 6 2,090
Engineer, site reliability 6 1,947
Project manager 6 3,897
Senior Executive (C-Suite, VP, etc.) 6 1,805
System administrator 6 4,908
Academic researcher 5 2,709
Cloud infrastructure engineer 5 5,283
Data scientist or machine learning specialist 5 3,424
Developer, desktop or enterprise applications 5 9,546
Developer, embedded applications or devices 5 3,923
DevOps specialist 5 6,170
Engineer, data 5 3,600
Engineering manager 5 3,574
Scientist 5 1,762
Developer, back-end 4 26,595
Developer, front-end 4 15,915
Developer, mobile 4 7,634
Student 4 5,595
Developer, full-stack 3 28,701
Which of the following describes your current job? Please select all that apply.

Developer Profile

Key territories

Across the world, developers and technologists turn to Stack Overflow to gain and share knowledge. Our survey received responses from almost every country on Earth.

The United States and India continue to provide the highest volume of survey responses, followed by Germany and UKI (UK and Ireland).

The top ten countries account for almost 60% of all respondents. This year we saw Spain just barely overtake Italy for the number ten spot. To see the top ten countries, refer to the methodology section.

41,502 responses
United States of America 18.88% 13,543
India 9.26% 6,639
Germany 7.52% 5,395
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 5.84% 4,190
Canada 3.47% 2,490
France 3.25% 2,328
Brazil 2.94% 2,109
Poland 2.41% 1,732
Netherlands 2.17% 1,555
Spain 2.12% 1,521
Where do you live? *
71,771 responses
Response Percentage Responses
United States of America 18.88% 13,543
India 9.26% 6,639
Germany 7.52% 5,395
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 5.84% 4,190
Canada 3.47% 2,490
France 3.25% 2,328
Brazil 2.94% 2,109
Poland 2.41% 1,732
Netherlands 2.17% 1,555
Spain 2.12% 1,521
Italy 2.11% 1,514
Australia 2.04% 1,462
Russian Federation 1.71% 1,229
Sweden 1.42% 1,020
Turkey 1.42% 1,020
Switzerland 1.3% 932
Austria 1.16% 833
Israel 1.11% 795
Iran, Islamic Republic of... 1.01% 723
Pakistan 0.99% 711
Czech Republic 0.96% 692
China 0.88% 632
Belgium 0.87% 626
Bangladesh 0.85% 613
Ukraine 0.83% 593
Romania 0.81% 581
Mexico 0.8% 574
Portugal 0.78% 563
Greece 0.76% 548
Denmark 0.76% 547
Indonesia 0.75% 537
Argentina 0.73% 521
Nigeria 0.72% 517
South Africa 0.69% 493
Norway 0.67% 479
Finland 0.65% 468
Hungary 0.65% 466
New Zealand 0.61% 440
Egypt 0.56% 400
Philippines 0.51% 366
Bulgaria 0.51% 364
Colombia 0.48% 341
Japan 0.46% 333
Ireland 0.46% 332
Viet Nam 0.44% 317
Sri Lanka 0.41% 296
Slovenia 0.4% 286
Serbia 0.39% 282
Kenya 0.38% 270
Taiwan 0.32% 233
Slovakia 0.32% 229
South Korea 0.32% 229
Morocco 0.32% 226
Singapore 0.32% 226
Nepal 0.31% 222
Lithuania 0.3% 212
Malaysia 0.29% 206
Chile 0.28% 203
Croatia 0.27% 192
Hong Kong (S.A.R.) 0.26% 184
Thailand 0.24% 175
United Arab Emirates 0.23% 165
Estonia 0.2% 141
Belarus 0.19% 136
Peru 0.19% 136
Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of... 0.17% 119
Saudi Arabia 0.16% 116
Uruguay 0.15% 106
Georgia 0.15% 105
Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.14% 103
Tunisia 0.14% 101
Latvia 0.13% 95
Armenia 0.13% 93
Ghana 0.12% 86
Uzbekistan 0.12% 84
Dominican Republic 0.12% 83
Ecuador 0.12% 83
Costa Rica 0.11% 76
Ethiopia 0.1% 75
Republic of Korea 0.1% 72
Lebanon 0.1% 71
Kazakhstan 0.1% 70
Afghanistan 0.1% 69
Azerbaijan 0.1% 69
Jordan 0.09% 64
Uganda 0.09% 63
Cyprus 0.09% 61
Albania 0.08% 59
Luxembourg 0.08% 56
Guatemala 0.08% 54
Iraq 0.08% 54
Myanmar 0.07% 53
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 0.07% 51
El Salvador 0.06% 45
Bolivia 0.06% 44
Paraguay 0.06% 42
Malta 0.05% 39
Republic of Moldova 0.05% 37
Algeria 0.05% 36
Cambodia 0.05% 35
Syrian Arab Republic 0.05% 35
Cameroon 0.05% 34
Palestine 0.05% 34
Sudan 0.04% 32
Cuba 0.04% 31
Zimbabwe 0.04% 30
Kosovo 0.04% 29
Honduras 0.04% 28
Iceland 0.04% 28
Panama 0.04% 28
United Republic of Tanzania 0.04% 28
Madagascar 0.04% 26
Jamaica 0.03% 22
Kyrgyzstan 0.03% 22
Mauritius 0.03% 21
Kuwait 0.03% 20
Qatar 0.03% 20
Rwanda 0.03% 20
Zambia 0.03% 20
Mongolia 0.03% 19
Montenegro 0.03% 19
Nicaragua 0.03% 18
Turkmenistan 0.02% 16
Andorra 0.02% 15
Bahrain 0.02% 14
Côte d'Ivoire 0.02% 14
Malawi 0.02% 14
Yemen 0.02% 14
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 0.02% 13
Oman 0.02% 13
Senegal 0.02% 13
Trinidad and Tobago 0.02% 13
Angola 0.02% 12
Congo, Republic of the... 0.02% 12
Isle of Man 0.02% 12
Maldives 0.02% 12
Somalia 0.02% 12
Benin 0.02% 11
Mozambique 0.02% 11
Tajikistan 0.02% 11
Mali 0.01% 10
Togo 0.01% 9
Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.01% 7
Lao People's Democratic Republic 0.01% 7
Swaziland 0.01% 7
Barbados 0.01% 6
Botswana 0.01% 6
Guyana 0.01% 6
Bhutan 0.01% 5
Guinea 0.01% 5
Namibia 0.01% 5
Bahamas 0.01% 4
Cape Verde 0.01% 4
North Korea 0.01% 4
Suriname 0.01% 4
Timor-Leste 0.01% 4
Belize 0% 3
Chad 0% 3
Haiti 0% 3
Niger 0% 3
Saint Lucia 0% 3
Antigua and Barbuda 0% 2
Fiji 0% 2
Gabon 0% 2
Gambia 0% 2
Lesotho 0% 2
Liberia 0% 2
Mauritania 0% 2
Palau 0% 2
Papua New Guinea 0% 2
Sierra Leone 0% 2
Brunei Darussalam 0% 1
Burkina Faso 0% 1
Djibouti 0% 1
Monaco 0% 1
Saint Kitts and Nevis 0% 1
San Marino 0% 1
Seychelles 0% 1
Solomon Islands 0% 1
Where do you live? *

Developer Profile

Demographics

Developers and technologists are a diverse group of individuals across many spectrums. We are committed to continuing to ensure our platform is inclusive and welcoming to all.

46% of Professional Developers are 25-34 years old. But we see that more than half of the respondents learning to code are 18-24 years old.

70,946 responses
Under 18 years old 5.45% 3,866
18-24 years old 23.46% 16,646
25-34 years old 39.62% 28,112
35-44 years old 19.72% 13,988
45-54 years old 7.44% 5,281
55-64 years old 2.79% 1,978
65 years or older 0.78% 554
Prefer not to say 0.73% 521
What is your age?
53,041 responses
Under 18 years old 0.71% 379
18-24 years old 20.13% 10,677
25-34 years old 45.91% 24,350
35-44 years old 21.96% 11,647
45-54 years old 7.66% 4,063
55-64 years old 2.71% 1,437
65 years or older 0.56% 295
Prefer not to say 0.36% 193
What is your age?
6,206 responses
Under 18 years old 17.66% 1,096
18-24 years old 55.59% 3,450
25-34 years old 17.31% 1,074
35-44 years old 5.16% 320
45-54 years old 1.84% 114
55-64 years old 0.66% 41
65 years or older 0.27% 17
Prefer not to say 1.51% 94
What is your age?

Those learning to code are slightly less likely to identify as a man and slightly more likely to prefer to not identify. Both of these are indications that the industry (and our survey) could continue to become more diverse as more people join the workforce.

92% of all respondents and 93% of Professional Developers identify as a man. The United States has the highest percentage of gender minorities (Woman, Non-binary, genderqueer, or gender non-conforming). We have considerable work to do to ensure our platform is inclusive and that our survey is representative of developers everywhere.

70,853 responses
Man 91.88% 65,097
Woman 5.17% 3,662
Non-binary, genderqueer, or gender non-conforming 1.67% 1,186
Prefer not to say 1.65% 1,172
Or, in your own words: 0.74% 521
Which of the following describe you, if any? Please check all that apply.
52,927 responses
Man 92.85% 49,141
Woman 4.8% 2,542
Non-binary, genderqueer, or gender non-conforming 1.39% 735
Prefer not to say 1.28% 678
Or, in your own words: 0.62% 327
Which of the following describe you, if any? Please check all that apply.
6,207 responses
Man 87.9% 5,456
Woman 7.96% 494
Prefer not to say 2.55% 158
Non-binary, genderqueer, or gender non-conforming 1.98% 123
Or, in your own words: 0.89% 55
Which of the following describe you, if any? Please check all that apply.
70,853 responses

Percent who identify as Woman, Non-binary, genderqueer, or gender non-conforming

United States of America 9.8% 1,328
Canada 8% 199
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 7.89% 332
Netherlands 7.06% 110
Spain 6.74% 102
Brazil 6.68% 142
France 5.97% 139
Germany 5.68% 307
India 5.63% 367
Poland 4.43% 77
Which of the following describe you, if any? Please check all that apply.

1.5% of all respondents identify as transgender. Like we see with gender identification, those learning to code are slightly more likely to prefer to not say if they identify as transgender.

70,315 responses
No 95.84% 67,392
Prefer not to say 1.96% 1,379
Yes 1.51% 1,064
Or, in your own words: 0.68% 480
Do you identify as transgender?
52,555 responses
No 96.65% 50,794
Prefer not to say 1.59% 837
Yes 1.17% 615
Or, in your own words: 0.59% 309
Do you identify as transgender?
6,123 responses
No 93.91% 5,750
Prefer not to say 3.18% 195
Yes 2.16% 132
Or, in your own words: 0.75% 46
Do you identify as transgender?

Those learning to code are less likely to identify as straight/heterosexual than Professional Developers, with 10% preferring not to say.

66,565 responses
Straight / Heterosexual 84.09% 55,975
Prefer not to say 6.53% 4,350
Bisexual 5.45% 3,626
Gay or Lesbian 2.67% 1,778
Prefer to self-describe: 2.15% 1,429
Queer 1.7% 1,131
Which of the following describe you, if any? Please check all that apply.
50,070 responses
Straight / Heterosexual 85.96% 43,040
Prefer not to say 5.57% 2,790
Bisexual 5.11% 2,558
Gay or Lesbian 2.52% 1,264
Prefer to self-describe: 1.71% 856
Queer 1.54% 770
Which of the following describe you, if any? Please check all that apply.
5,641 responses
Straight / Heterosexual 77.98% 4,399
Prefer not to say 9.98% 563
Bisexual 6.9% 389
Prefer to self-describe: 3.49% 197
Gay or Lesbian 2.52% 142
Queer 1.63% 92
Which of the following describe you, if any? Please check all that apply.

Those learning to code are less likely to identify as European and/or White than Professional Developers. Like we saw with other demographic questions, the new group of developers who may enter the workforce soon, could be more diverse.

69,474 responses
White 39.38% 27,360
European 37.25% 25,877
Indian 9.7% 6,739
Asian 9.48% 6,586
Hispanic or Latino/a 5.71% 3,967
Middle Eastern 4.1% 2,850
South American 3.78% 2,624
North American 3.36% 2,331
African 3.3% 2,294
South Asian 2.59% 1,797
Prefer not to say 2.49% 1,732
Southeast Asian 2.33% 1,618
Or, in your own words: 2.19% 1,524
Multiracial 1.76% 1,222
East Asian 1.75% 1,214
Black 1.48% 1,028
Biracial 1.15% 798
I don't know 1.01% 701
North African 0.88% 611
Caribbean 0.66% 460
Central American 0.6% 416
Central Asian 0.57% 397
Ethnoreligious group 0.5% 348
Indigenous (such as Native American or Indigenous Australian) 0.47% 330
Pacific Islander 0.21% 147
Which of the following describe you, if any? Please check all that apply.
51,945 responses
White 40.75% 21,166
European 38.13% 19,807
Indian 9.01% 4,678
Asian 8.53% 4,430
Hispanic or Latino/a 6.04% 3,137
Middle Eastern 4.21% 2,187
South American 4.1% 2,131
North American 3.24% 1,681
African 2.82% 1,466
South Asian 2.39% 1,242
Prefer not to say 2.2% 1,143
Or, in your own words: 2.08% 1,081
Southeast Asian 2% 1,038
Multiracial 1.68% 871
East Asian 1.5% 779
Black 1.27% 661
Biracial 1.06% 551
North African 0.82% 424
I don't know 0.8% 417
Caribbean 0.64% 334
Central American 0.56% 290
Central Asian 0.5% 262
Ethnoreligious group 0.45% 232
Indigenous (such as Native American or Indigenous Australian) 0.44% 231
Pacific Islander 0.17% 90
Which of the following describe you, if any? Please check all that apply.
6,086 responses
European 25.94% 1,579
White 24.33% 1,481
Indian 18.17% 1,106
Asian 16.86% 1,026
African 8.4% 511
Hispanic or Latino/a 4.65% 283
Southeast Asian 4.45% 271
South Asian 4.34% 264
Middle Eastern 4.27% 260
South American 3.12% 190
Black 3.07% 187
Prefer not to say 2.81% 171
East Asian 2.6% 158
North American 2.3% 140
Or, in your own words: 2.22% 135
I don't know 1.91% 116
Multiracial 1.81% 110
North African 1.5% 91
Biracial 1.27% 77
Central Asian 1.18% 72
Central American 0.81% 49
Caribbean 0.77% 47
Ethnoreligious group 0.43% 26
Indigenous (such as Native American or Indigenous Australian) 0.41% 25
Pacific Islander 0.36% 22
Which of the following describe you, if any? Please check all that apply.

2,547 respondents have a physical difference, with the majority of these respondents being blind or having difficulty seeing.

2,547 responses
I am blind / have difficulty seeing 1.7% 1,142
Or, in your own words: 0.97% 650
I am deaf / hard of hearing 0.85% 570
I am unable to / find it difficult to walk or stand without assistance 0.44% 298
I am unable to / find it difficult to type 0.35% 232
Which of the following describe you, if any? Please check all that apply.

Response to this question increased from 20% last year to 22% this year.

This year we see more developers identifying as having a concentration and/or memory disorder (10.6%), anxiety disorder (10.3%), mood or emotional disorder (9.7%).

16,163 responses
I have a concentration and/or memory disorder (e.g., ADHD, etc.) 10.57% 7,026
I have an anxiety disorder 10.31% 6,848
I have a mood or emotional disorder (e.g., depression, bipolar disorder, etc.) 9.71% 6,449
I have autism / an autism spectrum disorder (e.g. Asperger's, etc.) 4.27% 2,834
I have learning differences (e.g., Dyslexic, Dyslexia, etc.) 2.77% 1,840
Or, in your own words: 1.23% 815
Which of the following describe you, if any? Please check all that apply.

Technology

Each year we explore the tools and technologies developers are currently using and what they want to use.

We have the favorite Loved, Dreaded, and Wanted data as well as Worked With vs. Want to Work With, which shows us precisely what developers used in the past year and what they want to work on in the following year. If you need a refresher on how we structure Loved, Dread and Wanted, or if you want to read about the intuition behind Worked With vs. Want to Work With, check out this post our meta post.

Technology

Most loved, dreaded, and wanted

Always one of the most popular series, we have some technologies/tools that are maintaining their position as most loved (Rust), and some that have unseated leaders (PostgreSQL).

Rust is on its seventh year as the most loved language with 87% of developers saying they want to continue using it.

Rust also ties with Python as the most wanted technology with TypeScript running a close second.

71,467 responses
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Which programming, scripting, and markup languages have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the language and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)
71,467 responses

% of developers who are not developing with the language or technology but have expressed interest in developing with it

Rust 17.6% 11,409
Python 17.59% 6,564
TypeScript 17.03% 7,956
Go 16.41% 10,425
JavaScript 12.98% 3,249
Kotlin 8.08% 5,250
C++ 7.67% 4,255
SQL 6.51% 2,365
C# 6.11% 3,154
Java 5.6% 2,679
Dart 4.83% 3,226
C 4.34% 2,506
Swift 4.3% 2,920
HTML/CSS 4.09% 1,322
Elixir 3.07% 2,150
Haskell 2.98% 2,085
Solidity 2.82% 1,987
Ruby 2.66% 1,787
Bash/Shell 2.65% 1,346
Assembly 2.5% 1,687
R 2.33% 1,589
Scala 2.21% 1,540
PHP 2.17% 1,227
F# 2.14% 1,513
Julia 2.05% 1,445
Lua 1.72% 1,178
Clojure 1.63% 1,148
PowerShell 1.55% 976
Erlang 1.25% 887
LISP 1.02% 716
OCaml 0.77% 547
MATLAB 0.76% 519
Objective-C 0.71% 495
APL 0.55% 391
Perl 0.53% 370
Crystal 0.51% 366
Groovy 0.47% 324
VBA 0.39% 268
Fortran 0.39% 277
COBOL 0.37% 263
SAS 0.33% 237
Delphi 0.23% 162
Which programming, scripting, and markup languages have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the language and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)

PostgreSQL becomes the most loved and wanted database after five years of Redis being the most loved.

62,594 responses
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Which database environments have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the database and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)
62,594 responses

% of developers who are not developing with the language or technology but have expressed interest in developing with it

PostgreSQL 19.05% 6,870
MongoDB 17.26% 7,831
Redis 14.3% 7,024
Elasticsearch 8.29% 4,575
SQLite 8.18% 3,524
MySQL 7.99% 2,723
Firebase Realtime Database 5.08% 2,908
DynamoDB 4.82% 2,772
Cassandra 4.39% 2,676
Neo4j 2.95% 1,808
MariaDB 2.71% 1,398
Microsoft SQL Server 2.62% 1,212
Cloud Firestore 2.54% 1,476
Oracle 2.24% 1,247
CouchDB 1.55% 957
Couchbase 0.98% 606
IBM DB2 0.4% 248
Which database environments have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the database and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)

AWS remains not only the most used cloud platform but also the most loved and wanted.

55,648 responses
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Which cloud platforms have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the platform and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)
55,648 responses

% of developers who are not developing with the language or technology but have expressed interest in developing with it

AWS 34.34% 10,201
Google Cloud 18.14% 7,623
Microsoft Azure 15.57% 6,392
Firebase 8.38% 3,762
DigitalOcean 6.47% 3,084
Heroku 5.09% 2,316
Linode 2.64% 1,417
OpenStack 2.24% 1,224
VMware 1.86% 954
Oracle Cloud Infrastructure 1.59% 866
IBM Cloud or Watson 1.49% 815
OVH 0.77% 416
Managed Hosting 0.75% 398
Colocation 0.43% 237
Which cloud platforms have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the platform and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)

Phoenix overtakes Svelte’s spot as the most loved web framework.

Angular.js is in its third year as the most dreaded. React.js completes its fifth year as most wanted.

57,654 responses
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Which web frameworks and web technologies have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the framework and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)
57,654 responses

% of developers who are not developing with the language or technology but have expressed interest in developing with it

React.js 22.54% 7,750
Node.js 16.12% 5,146
Vue.js 14.6% 6,916
Next.js 11.28% 5,669
Svelte 9.34% 5,154
Django 7.89% 3,916
Angular 7.18% 3,339
Deno 5.67% 3,214
FastAPI 4.94% 2,687
Express 4.89% 2,204
Blazor 4.69% 2,590
Nuxt.js 4.68% 2,602
ASP.NET Core 4.43% 2,104
Flask 4.32% 2,146
Angular.js 4.32% 2,276
Ruby on Rails 3.3% 1,798
jQuery 2.79% 1,174
Laravel 2.4% 1,261
ASP.NET 2.37% 1,173
Phoenix 1.79% 1,011
Gatsby 1.72% 961
Fastify 1.51% 857
Symfony 0.94% 523
Play Framework 0.47% 269
Drupal 0.43% 241
Which web frameworks and web technologies have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the framework and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)

Hugging Face Transformers surfaces as the most loved library while Tensorflow remains the most wanted.

This suggests that developers want to build machine learning models but enjoy using pre-trained models more. The popular cross-platform libraries, Flutter and React Native also remain in the top three most wanted.

53,442 responses
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Which other frameworks and libraries have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the framework and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)
53,442 responses

% of developers who are not developing with the language or technology but have expressed interest in developing with it

TensorFlow 15.33% 7,283
Flutter 13.52% 6,439
React Native 13.05% 6,223
Apache Kafka 8.64% 4,207
Torch/PyTorch 8.57% 4,239
Electron 7.93% 3,891
NumPy 7.49% 3,018
Pandas 6.7% 2,811
.NET 5.38% 2,022
Apache Spark 4.29% 2,195
Scikit-learn 3.91% 1,862
Qt 3.55% 1,757
Spring 3.52% 1,619
Keras 3.34% 1,672
Hadoop 3.23% 1,673
Xamarin 3.12% 1,594
Ionic 2.02% 1,030
GTK 1.96% 1,023
Hugging Face Transformers 1.73% 907
Capacitor 0.94% 494
Cordova 0.8% 412
Uno Platform 0.79% 419
Tidyverse 0.39% 204
Which other frameworks and libraries have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the framework and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)

Docker and Kubernetes are in first and second place as the most loved and wanted tools.

The desire to start using Docker does not appear to be slowing down as Docker increased from 30% last to 37% this year for wanted.

59,164 responses
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Which developer tools have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the technology and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)
59,164 responses

% of developers who are not developing with the language or technology but have expressed interest in developing with it

Docker 37.08% 8,966
Kubernetes 23.82% 11,087
Unreal Engine 8.48% 4,830
Terraform 8% 4,239
Unity 3D 7.79% 4,153
npm 7.09% 1,658
Ansible 5.45% 2,941
Yarn 4.63% 2,038
Homebrew 1.73% 772
Pulumi 1.38% 809
Puppet 1.37% 795
Chef 1.33% 778
Flow 0.64% 376
Which developer tools have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the technology and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)

Neovim is the most loved editor for the second year in a row, with Visual Studio Code the next most loved.

However, Visual Studio Code is the most wanted tool, followed by Android Studio.

70,832 responses
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Which development environments did you use regularly over the past year, and which do you want to work with over the next year? Please check all that apply.
70,832 responses

% of developers who are not developing with the language or technology but have expressed interest in developing with it

Visual Studio Code 10.98% 2,011
Android Studio 4.14% 2,354
Xcode 3.31% 2,098
IntelliJ 3.29% 1,681
Visual Studio 2.75% 1,322
Vim 2.65% 1,440
PyCharm 2.43% 1,425
GoLand 1.65% 1,128
Neovim 1.59% 1,049
Webstorm 1.55% 1,008
IPython/Jupyter 1.52% 952
Rider 1.5% 1,011
CLion 0.99% 669
Emacs 0.99% 667
Atom 0.85% 544
Sublime Text 0.82% 483
Eclipse 0.8% 496
PhpStorm 0.72% 478
Qt Creator 0.68% 472
Notepad++ 0.61% 313
RStudio 0.52% 356
RubyMine 0.39% 275
NetBeans 0.39% 262
Spyder 0.34% 232
Nano 0.26% 166
RAD Studio (Delphi, C++ Builder) 0.18% 123
TextMate 0.12% 84
Which development environments did you use regularly over the past year, and which do you want to work with over the next year? Please check all that apply.

Notion is the most loved asynchronous collaboration tool and the third most wanted tool.

Jira and Confluence - the two most used tools by Professional Developers, are almost evenly split between being loved and dreaded. But Jira is the most wanted tool, followed by Trello, Notion, and Stack Overflow for Teams.

48,310 responses
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Which collaborative work management tools did you use regularly over the past year, and which do you want to work with over the next year? Select all that apply
48,310 responses

% of developers who are not developing with the language or technology but have expressed interest in developing with it

Jira Work Management 7.2% 1,734
Trello 4.77% 1,525
Notion 4.76% 1,839
Stack Overflow for Teams 3.75% 1,743
Confluence 2.83% 814
Asana 1.4% 620
Microsoft Planner 1.39% 642
monday.com 1.33% 619
ClickUp 1.16% 528
Airtable 0.95% 443
Microsoft Lists 0.79% 372
Adobe Workfront 0.59% 283
Smartsheet 0.29% 137
Workzone 0.22% 107
Swit 0.21% 100
Wrike 0.2% 94
DingTalk (Teambition) 0.16% 79
Cerri 0.13% 61
Wimi 0.12% 57
Leankor 0.12% 56
Planview Projectplace or Clarizen 0.11% 54
Which collaborative work management tools did you use regularly over the past year, and which do you want to work with over the next year? Select all that apply

Slack is the most loved synchronous collaboration tool and the most wanted tool. Zoom, one of the most used tools by Professional Developers, is almost evenly split between being loved and being dreaded.

63,012 responses
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Which communication tools did you use regularly over the past year, and which do you want to work with over the next year? Select all that apply
63,012 responses

% of developers who are not developing with the language or technology but have expressed interest in developing with it

Slack 12.73% 3,637
Microsoft Teams 4.78% 1,286
Zoom 2.99% 803
Google Chat 2.04% 1,018
Mattermost 0.98% 589
Rocketchat 0.61% 378
Cisco Webex Teams 0.57% 325
Wire 0.3% 191
Symphony 0.22% 135
Wickr 0.17% 106
Unify Circuit 0.13% 80
RingCentral 0.12% 78
Coolfire Core 0.12% 77
Which communication tools did you use regularly over the past year, and which do you want to work with over the next year? Select all that apply

Technology

Worked with vs. want to work with

Developers are naturally curious and interested in new technologies. We look at what technologies they are interested in trying based on what they are using now.

Similar to last year we see over 10k Javascript developers that want to start or continue developing in Go or Rust.

69,362 responses

Minimum 5,000 respondents per connection.

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Which programming, scripting, and markup languages have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the language and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)
51,756 responses

Minimum 5,000 respondents per connection.

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Which programming, scripting, and markup languages have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the language and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)
5,825 responses

Minimum 500 respondents per connection.

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Which programming, scripting, and markup languages have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the language and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)

Those learning to code that currently use MySQL are more likely to want to start or continue to use MongoDB over any other database.

57,378 responses

Minimum 5,000 respondents per connection.

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Which database environments have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the database and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)
44,804 responses

Minimum 5,000 respondents per connection.

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Which database environments have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the database and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)
3,753 responses

Minimum 500 respondents per connection.

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Which database environments have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the database and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)

Similar to 2021, we see a large number of AWS developers wanting to develop in Google Cloud or Microsoft Azure next year.

Professional developers are curious about the other cloud platforms that they haven’t worked with before. Each platform offers something slightly different for developers, whether it’s features (e.g., advanced data analytics tools), scalability, pricing options, etc. that can make it appealing to build on.

48,974 responses

Minimum 1,000 respondents per connection.

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Which cloud platforms have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the platform and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)
39,114 responses

Minimum 1,000 respondents per connection.

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Which cloud platforms have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the platform and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)
2,848 responses

Minimum 100 respondents per connection.

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Which cloud platforms have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the platform and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)

React.js developers are very interconnected with other frameworks and technologies, most notably Node.js.

49,625 responses

Minimum 4,000 respondents per connection.

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Which web frameworks and web technologies have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the framework and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)
38,332 responses

Minimum 4,000 respondents per connection.

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Which web frameworks and web technologies have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the framework and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)
3,118 responses

Minimum 400 respondents per connection.

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Which web frameworks and web technologies have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the framework and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)

NumPy and Pandas are the most interconnected other frameworks/libraries for all respondents, Professional Developers, and those learning to code.

44,176 responses

Minimum 1,000 respondents per connection.

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Which other frameworks and libraries have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the framework and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)
33,591 responses

Minimum 1,000 respondents per connection.

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2,835 responses

Minimum 100 respondents per connection.

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Similar to 2021, we see a lot of people working with npm and Docker who also want to work with those same technologies.

51,741 responses

Minimum 5,000 respondents per connection.

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Which developer tools have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the technology and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)
41,720 responses

Minimum 5,000 respondents per connection.

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Which developer tools have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the technology and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)
2,884 responses

Minimum 500 respondents per connection.

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Which developer tools have you done extensive development work in over the past year, and which do you want to work in over the next year? (If you both worked with the technology and want to continue to do so, please check both boxes in that row.)

VS Code is the most interconnected IDE among all respondents, Professional Developers, and those learning to code.

People who are learning to code have more IDEs they want to work with - IPython/Jupyter, Eclipse, Atom - than Professional Developers.

67,765 responses

Minimum 5,000 respondents per connection.

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Which development environments did you use regularly over the past year, and which do you want to work with over the next year? Please check all that apply.
50,803 responses

Minimum 5,000 respondents per connection.

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Which development environments did you use regularly over the past year, and which do you want to work with over the next year? Please check all that apply.
5,727 responses

Minimum 500 respondents per connection.

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Which development environments did you use regularly over the past year, and which do you want to work with over the next year? Please check all that apply.

Jira and Confluence are most closely interconnected, which makes sense given they are under the same company.

We see interest in working with other asynchronous tools, likely because each of these tools serves a different purpose in a developer’s workflow.

44,307 responses

Minimum 1,000 respondents per connection.

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36,835 responses

Minimum 1,000 respondents per connection.

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1,855 responses

Minimum 100 respondents per connection.

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Which collaborative work management tools did you use regularly over the past year, and which do you want to work with over the next year? Select all that apply

With Professional Developers, we see some interest in wanting to use other chat and video platforms than they are using now.

61,833 responses

Minimum 1,000 respondents per connection.

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Which communication tools did you use regularly over the past year, and which do you want to work with over the next year? Select all that apply
48,973 responses

Minimum 1,000 respondents per connection.